African History Research

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the subject to write about Abakuá of Cuba

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Abakuá is believed to have come from the regions between South-west of Cameroon and South-east of Nigeria. They are commonly referred to as Ego, and they practice ñañigos as their religion. In Cuba, they are well known their cultural practices in music and dance, and celebrations. For example, on the Day of the Three Kings, they partake in Carnival through music and dance throughout streets (Román, 2002). They have their own distinct music style which sets them apart. As a matter of fact, the combination of Abakuá music and Bantu of Congo’s music is what is called rhumba. Members of this community are very secretive, and thus very little is known about their language and other specific traditions. However, it is believed that their language is influenced by the Ibibio of Nigeria. Over time, their traditions and cultural practices have been influenced by Cuba’s style. Thus, they are a reflection of both African and Cuban roots. They also have distinct beliefs. For example, they believe that human beings can transform in form for the purpose of spying on an enemy (Mason, 2015). They even believe that human beings can be transformed into leopards for this same purpose.

Please follow this Guideline and Rubric closely while you write your 10-page research paper.

  • Your paper should have a clear introduction, stating a clear THESIS/THEME of your research in the first paragraph.
  • Also state in the first paragraph the significance of your study.Why is the study important in African History or History of Black people globally? What NEW INFORMATION your research reveals in relation to what other writers have said about the topic or similar topic?
  • AVOID THE USE OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUN “I” IN THE PAPER. For example “I plan to write about…” Simply say, “This paper is about or this paper examines or explores…”
  • The body of the paper should read smoothly and clearly. It should be edited for wrong grammar and sentences. Try to use short sentences and not long sentences that will confuse the idea you want to convey or put forward. Proof read your paper for wrong spellings.
  • Write or type paper one-sided. Each page be separated into paragraphs.
  • Your conclusion should be the last paragraph and should highlights or clearly states/provide summary of the main points or themes your paper examined, including new information or idea your research revealed. Remember that the paper is a research paper.
  • You MUST use FOOTNOTES citations, NOT APA or MLA citations.
  • Footnote citation format: There should be NO URL or www., www.,
  • The last page of the paper should have the list of books, articles and any sources you used to write the paper.
  • Names in bibliography should be written in alphabetical order: a,b,c, etc.

The War of 1812 is rightly called the American second war of independence because the war finally led to the British removing all of their troops from the soil of the United States.[1] The removal of the troops represented the British acknowledgement of the victory and sovereignty of the United States.[2]

Example of footnotes and Bibliographical format citations of books and articles:

Bibliographical Format of a book: Doe, John. The History of the American Revolution. New York: New York University Press, 1978.

Book citation for footnote:John Doe. The History of the American Revolution. (New York: New York University Press, 1978), p. 20.

Article format in Bibliography: Doe, John. “The Federalists Interpretation of the American Constitution.” Journal of American History, vol. 6, no. 23 (1964), p. 16.

Article citation for footnote: John Doe. “The Federalists Interpretation of the American Constitution.” Journal of American History, vol. 6, no. 23 (1964), p. 16.


Bibliography: Peters, Linda. Interviewed May 7, 2018. Baltimore, Maryland.

Footnote citation: Linda Peters. Interviewed May 7, 2018. Baltimore, Maryland.

Rubric for Paper

  • Paper without clear Title, introduction, a clear Thesis/theme, research significance, and new info/idea explored in the paper. (-10 points).
  • Paper with a very broad or vague title, without names, course section, not related to Africa or Black people (-20points).
  • Paper not staple before submission (-25points).
  • Use of personal Pronoun “I”: (-3 points for each use).
  • Lack of paragraphs and indentions on pages of the paper: (-5 points each page).
  • Lack of double-spacing or typing on both sides of the paper: (-10 points each page).
  • Paper with disjointed and repeated sentences and ideas, wrong spellings, very long sentence(s) (-10 points every paragraph).
  • Paper without clarity in Conclusion and failed to highlights NEW info/ideas the research revealed. (-10 points).
  • The use of any websites such as, or Wikipedia or any as sources on any page: (-5 points for each citation).
  • Sources should include published books and journal articles and newspapers. Footnote citations without names of authors, titles of sources cited, and citation pages: (-5 points each page).
  • Bibliographical sources not arrange alphabetically and/or less than five: (-15 points).
  • After the first citation of a book, article or any source, the citation of the same source and page should cited as “Ibid,” the same source but different page should be “Ibid,” page #. (-5 each page for not doing so).
  • The use of one source for more than three pages (-5points every time)
  • The use of APA or MLA on any page: (-5points each page).
  • Paper less than 10 pages (-25 points).

[1] John Doe. The American Second War of Independence. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), P. 7.

[2] James Peterson. “The Second Victory for Americans after the War of 1812.” Journal of War History. Vol. 5, no. 6(1820), p. 12.

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