For each of the research topics listed below, indicate the type of nonexperimental approach that would be most useful and explain why.
1. Pushing ahead in line
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3. Locating the most popular painting in an art gallery
4. Studiousness in college students
5. Determining whether a particular patient has improved with psychotherapy.
List the main sections (and subsections) of a research report.
Compare and contrast the following terms: (a) test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability, (b) content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity, and (c) internal validity with external validity. ·
Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step.
When designing survey questions, how would you control for each of the following response styles:
(a) willingness to answer,
(b) position preference, and
(c) yea- or nay-saying?
Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions:
1. What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? Explain.
2. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.
3. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain.
4. What type of scale is used when the variables studied are low and normal birth weights of newborns? Explain.
Contrast experimental with quasi-experimental methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?
When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?
Researcher Sandy Beach found a correlation coefficient of +2.3 between variables X and Y. She is thrilled because that correlation is “like, way high.” She also feels that this answer “proves that X is like, causing Y.” What are three problems with Sandy’s conclusions?
Contrast probability and nonprobability sampling methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?