Three forum responses 300 words each with works cited international political systems
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Three forum responses 300 words each with works cited international political systems. One of the responses is to a question, see below:
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I found “The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise” by Christopher Layne to be the most compelling author and the one I agreed with the most on the topic of Great Power Rivalries in international relations. Layne used a historical example the United States used in subtly convincing both growing economic powers Germany and Japan to join the American-led security and economic system instead of pursuing to become great powers. The United States was not confrontational with these two states but saw them as growing powers so it took indirect measures of offering security and partnership instead as a deterrent of its noticeable growing influence.
The umbrella of security from the United States was what these two countries would get in return for accepting the United States offer by joining the bandwagon. The unipolar system seems to be a healthy option to states in need of security while trying to prosper economically and also to stay in good relations with the United States. Layne couldn’t have explained his theory any better when he stated “In a unipolar system, it is argued, the United States could avoid the unpredictable geopolitical consequences that would attend the emergence of new great powers.” (Layne 1993, 7)
The emergence of great powers would make the world less predictable and more anarchic and the risks for a miscalculation between one of the emerging great powers is more of a possibility as they would be competing for more influence on the geopolitical stage. Layton uses the neorealist theory to explain the effects of unipolarity and why he thinks it may not be able to last much longer before it goes back to a multipolar world. Layne predicts it’s only a matter of time before the United States loses its foothold as the only great power and the inevitable multipolar world becomes a reality when an emergence of great powers comes along to challenge it on the geopolitical stage. An important topic Layton pointed out was states in the international political system are the most concerned with their own survival. As states rise to power so do their ambitions and increase in security, geopolitical and military capabilities all come next after the effects of economic expansion (Layne 1993, 11).
Yes I would have to agree with Layne that a great power rivalry is very much likely. Syria can be used as an example where the United States and Russia are involved in a major geopolitical conflict but not directly fighting against each other. Although the United States and Russia have been very careful in the Syrian conflict both countries have 2 military bases each inside the country. Both countries have sought to expand their influence inside Syria and the difference between these two countries is the Russian military was invited by the Syrian government while the United States wasn’t. Russia has used Syria as a trial field to test its military capabilities on the ground. This can also be used as a show of force to challenge the United States own military capabilities (Helou 2017). After reading the lesson three notes I would agree Russia can be considered strategic competition against the United States but shouldn’t be considered as a threat since it hasn’t made any hostile threats or actions towards any of the U.S. bases on the ground in Syria. Russia is flexing its military might and expanding its influence in the Middle East Region while showing it can also be effective in resolving international conflicts.
Layne, Christopher. 1993. “The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise.” International Security. Vol. 17, No. 4, 5-51. Accessed 17 January 2018. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy2.apus.edu/stable/2539020?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Helou, Agnes. 2017. “Russia and US engage in ‘military base race’ in Syria” Defense News. Accessed 17 January 2018.https://www.defensenews.com/global/mideast-africa/2018/01/15/russia-and-us-engage-in-military-base-race-in-syria/
Over my lifetime I have learned and heard many perspectives and views of how systems are or how they should be, in regards to rivalry between great powers, it is very obvious that forms of competition is encoded in us. Scholars as educated they may be still hold bias that challenge other perspectives. A perfect example as to how great powers rival one another was the Cold War. Based on the theory groups idealize in their nation and how they pursue their agenda for the nation will dictate their actions towards others in the international system. Most of the time the main theory utilized is realism which sets forth a more aggressive competitive nature with others. With a multipolar system I believe that the international system may go two ways, one is that nations would be much more polite and cooperative with one another due to the equal level of power they hold, or second they may be at each other’s throats with heavy competition within an anarchical state and be in an unpredictable situation.
The most convincing argument that I read this week has to be “Waiting for Balancing: Why the World Is Not Pushing Back” by Keir A Lieber and Gerard Alexander. Their material gave good perspectives of behavior, policies, and the balance of power in the international system. The article points to the methods of how the U.S. uses its foreign policies to engage other nations and transnational terrorist organizations. As an example of what the authors are saying, “The study of balancing behavior in international relations has deep roots, but it remains fraught with conceptual ambiguities and competing theoretical and empirical claims. Rather than offer a review of the relevant debates, we focus here on a specific set of realist and liberal predictions that states will balance against U.S. power under current conditions. Although realists tend to see great power balancing as an inevitable phenomenon of international politics and liberals generally see it as an avoidable feature of international life, the arguments discussed below share the view that balancing is being provoked by aggressive and imprudent U.S. policies” (Lieber and Alexander 2005). Overall the article sets a proper portrayal of how international relations are carried out which settles along with my personal understanding of how things are in the international system.
In the current state of the international community there are industries that are rising and economies that are booming. India is a good example as to how tech companies along with tech industries are rising and the economy is blooming along with it. India is also getting sophisticated in its medical industry which is also benefiting many people who require medical care and attention. However with the large population it is not a great power or rival in a military environment. A great example of industry, economic, and military power that can rival the great power of the United States is Russia and China. Russia has been recovering from the hard collapse of its former self and now with the strong leadership of President Putin the nation is getting back into the role of a mighty powerhouse as it used to be. As for China, its economy and industry is and has been constantly growing, but there are restrictions in the amount of space they have for transportation and support of its large population. They are constantly building their infrastructure and more importantly their military is a large force that is intimidating. As for their economy, it is beyond of the United States which gives them additional advantages if there should be any rivalry. So in the future there will most definitely be powerful nations and in order for the United States to remain relevant military spending and other forms of accounted or unaccounted budgets (black or not) need to be reduced and invested into the infrastructure and the people of the nation so that it may grow stronger.
Lieber, Keir A., and Gerard Alexander. 2005.”Waiting for Balancing: Why the World Is Not Pushing Back.” International Security 30, no. 1 (2005): 109-39. Accessed January 16, 2018. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4137460.
Answer this question:
Would you argue that the multi-polarity causes anarchy, whereas uni-polarity ensures relative peace and stability in the international system?