# To Prepare Review the lead-in for the Discussion and this week’s Learning Resources. Pay particular attention to the levels of measurement (categorical or metric) associated with variables in differe

To Prepare Review the lead-in for the Discussion and this week’s Learning Resources. Pay particular attention to the levels of measurement (categorical or metric) associated with variables in different types of statistical tests. Review your quantitative scenario developed to date. Using the Statistical Analysis Decision Table, in this week’s Learning Resources, determine which statistical test you would use given the level of measurement (categorical or metric) of each variable. Alignment of scenario elements is important. See the Examples of Aligned and Misaligned Scenariosdocument, which can be downloaded from the Week 7 Learning Resources area of the classroom. Discussion posts are pass/fail but have minimum criteria to pass. See the Discussion Rubric to ensure you understand the pass/fail criteria.This week is only about the quantitative scenario. Repost, or build on or refine as needed, your quantitative scenario using the following headings and according to the italicized instructions given for each element:MUST BE IN THIS FORMAT!!!!Program of Study: Identify your specific program of study and, if applicable, your concentration area.Social Problem: Briefly describe the social problem or phenomenon of interest. Typically, this can be done in 3 or fewer sentences.Quantitative Research Problem: Complete the following sentence: The scholarly community does not know…Quantitative Research Purpose: Typically, this is a 1-sentence statement addressed by completing the following sentence:The purpose of this quantitative study is…Quantitative Research Question: Typically, this is a 1-sentence question unless you have more than one research question.Theory or Conceptual Framework: Identify a specific psychological or sociological theory or specific aspects of a conceptual framework that guides the scenario. Briefly describe how the specific theory or conceptual framework guides your research question and will aid in interpretation of results.Quantitative Research Design: Identify a specific quantitative research design. Do not use broad terms, such as survey design, cohort design, longitudinal design, causal-comparative design, cross-sectional design, and so on. Briefly describe how the selected design fits your scenario.Quantitative Sampling Strategy: Be specific.Quantitative Data Collection Method: Be specific.Variables: Briefly describe each of your variables to include their range of measured values,level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and identification as either an independent or dependent variable.Statistical Analysis: Describe and defend a specific statistical procedure you would use to answer the research question.Note: Use proper APA format. If helpful, support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

To Prepare Review the lead-in for the Discussion and this week’s Learning Resources. Pay particular attention to the levels of measurement (categorical or metric) associated with variables in differe
Statistical Analysis Decision Table Basic Statistical Analysis Variable 1 Variable 2 Statistical Analysis Sa mple Research Question Mean Difference Categorical with 2 -levels Metric Independent Samples t Test Is there a difference in attitudes towards weight gain between men and women? Categorical with 2 or more levels Metric One -Way ANOVA Is there a differe nce in critical thinking scores among psychology, health sciences, and information technology students? Metric Metric on same scale as Variable 1 Paired Samples t Test Is there a difference in pre – and post -test critical thinking scores among students wh o completed a course on critical thinking? Correlation Metric Metric Correlation or Bivariate Regression Is there a relationship between number of hours spent studying and grade point average (GPA)? Metric Multiple metric variables Multiple Linear Re gression Are childhood trauma frequency, severity, and age of initial trauma predictors of post – traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? Association Categorical with 2 or more levels Categorical with 2 or more levels Chi Square Test of Independence (Crosstabs in IBM SPSS) Is there a relationship between gender (male or female) and political affiliation (republican, democrat, independent )?
To Prepare Review the lead-in for the Discussion and this week’s Learning Resources. Pay particular attention to the levels of measurement (categorical or metric) associated with variables in differe
Quantitive Program of Study: PhD in Forensic Psychology specialization in victimology. Social Problem: Young offenders are categorized to be between the age of 10 -17 years. After serving their stipulated term, it has been found that there is a high rate of recidivism among Juveniles. The recidivisms rate amongst are far higher amongst Juveniles then adults with the rate being 75% within three years. This is a problem as there is little to no literature on how to reduce recidivism in young offenders. There is a great need for research on effective rehabilitation and re -entry programs that will include mental health and substance abuse programs that will assist with decreasing recidivism and help in integrating these young offenders back into society as productive members. Quantitative Research Problem: There is little to no research on the impact of mental health and substance abuse programs which are suggested to be offered to these juvenile offenders. Therefore, the scholarly community does not know the extent to which these juveniles’ risk and criminogenic risk factors, and if implementing substance abuse and mental health counseling with reduce re -offending. Quantitative Research Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative research is to determine th e extent of mental health and substance abuse counseling services during the discharge process has a connection to the high recidivism rate amongst juveniles. Quantitative Research Question: What is the extent of mental health and substance abuse counsell ing services offered to juvenile offenders during the discharge process? Theoretical or Conceptual Framework: The Conceptual Framework for this research study was provided by Agnew (2009) General Stain Theory. Agnew strain theory argued that strains and st ressors where the contributing factor to negative emotions such as anger and frustration which is a buildup that causes individuals to commit criminal offenses to assist in relieving their strains (Agnew 2009). For example, most juveniles that commit crimi nal activities is usually due to financial hardships, which increases the strain too rob, or a commit a breaking. This need to commit these crimes relieves the strain of their financial hardship or to alleviate their negative emotions through drugs and alc ohol. According to Agnew et al. (2009) there are three types of strains: (1) The failure to achieve positive goals. This could be the result between what one expects and what they achieve, or what they expect an outcome to be as oppose to what the outcom e truly is. (2) The removal of positive stimuli from the juvenile. This could be losing a parent, being rejected by family or losing a friend. For these juveniles to compensate for these strains, they often lean towards criminal activities such as robbing , hurting someone or even often killing someone. (3) This pertains to strain as a result of negative stimuli which could refer to physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence or other dangerous conditions (Agnew, et al. 2009). These negative stimuli o ften promote aggression and negative emotions that leads to criminal offenses. Agnew’s researched the conditions of ex -offenders after their release resulted in criminal behavior and delinquency, as well recidivism (Agnew, et al. 2009). Quantitative Resear ch Design: For this research design a comparative, nonexperimental design consisting of a cross -sectional survey to determine if there was a relationship between juvenile ex -offenders who was provided mental health and substance abuse counseling compared to juvenile ex -offenders who was not provided mental health and substance abuse counseling upon reentry and recidivism. From here, the risk factors that influence recidivism and how they are impacted by the intervention programs are established Quantitativ e Sampling Strategy: The sampling for this research design will be male juvenile ex -offenders who were the age of 13 -17 who was recently released from a juvenile program that had served a minimum of a year and currently on house arrest or probation. Quant itative Data Collection Method: Surveys Implementing the Level of Service Inventory (LSI -R) (Andrew & Bonta, 2010). This survey assessment will be implemented by meeting with juvenile ex -offender’s face to face. Variables: • Nominal variables: according to Borgatta et al. (1980), this is used to name or categorize particular attributes being measured. In this study, nominal variables are male ex -offenders. This is an independent variable • Ordinal variables: according to Borgatta et al (1980), this is a type of measurement that takes values with order or rank. In this study, the ordinal variable is the ages from 13 -17 years. This is an independent variable • Interval variables: according to Borgatta et al (1980), this is a measurement variable that is used to de fine values measured along a scale. In this study, the interval variable is ex -offenders who had served a minimum of a year. This is a dependent variable • Ratio variables: according to Borgatta et al (1980), this is an extension of the interval variable an d is also the peal of the measurement variable types. In this study, ratio variables include the ages in the form of intervals: below 13 years, between 13 -17 years, and above 17 years. This is a dependent variable References: Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39 –55 Agnew, Robert , Nicole Leeper Piquero , and Francis T. Cullen (2009) ‘General Strain Theory and White -Collar Crime’, in Borgatta, E. F., & Bohrnst edt, G. W. (1980). Level of Measurement. Sociological Methods & Research, 9(2), 147 -160. doi:10.1177/004912418000900202 Sally S. Simpson and David Weisburd (eds) The Criminology of White -Collar Crime, 35 -60. New York : Springer. PROFESSOR RESPONSE Jailya, For your quantitative research design, you want to talk more about your sampling strategy. This site provides a nice overview of different sampling strategies: http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=2455 . For your variables, an independent variable is anything that you have no control over or that you deliberately hold constant and your dependent variables are anything that you measure and expect to be changed or diff erent as a result of your experiment. For your study, one independent variable seems to be whether the individual did or did not receive counseling. If you want to include age as a second independent variable, you could do that, but I’m not clear why you p redict that will have an impact. Your dependent variable will be related to recitivism in some way. Perhaps the question is whether they returned to prison at one year after they were released or at five years after they were released? This would give you two nominal dependent variables. John Agnew