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To successfully complete this assignment, follow the instructions below:

ATTACHED IS THE WORKSHEETS PLEASE MAKE SURE THERE ALL WORD DOCUMENTS

To successfully complete this assignment, follow the instructions below: ATTACHED IS THE WORKSHEETS PLEASE MAKE SURE THERE ALL WORD DOCUMENTS
Digestive System: Enzymatic Digestion and Absorption 1. List the three major nutrient classes (a.k.a. macronutrients). 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 2. Which of the following carbohydrates is not a disaccharide? a. maltose b. lactose c. starch d. sucrose 3. Match the following pairs of molecules with their monomers by placing the number next to the matching letter: a. sucrose __________ b. maltose __________ c. starch ___________ d. lactose __________ The monomers: 1. many glucose monomers 2. glucose + fructose 3. glucose + galactose 4. glucose + glucose 4. The breakdown products (monomers) of proteins are __________ _________. 5. The breakdown products of triglycerides include monoglycerides and _______ _________. 6. Place the following labels on the diagram below: maltose, maltotriose, limit dextrin 7. Once food is acidified in the stomach, amylase continues to digest starch. a. True b. False 8. The digestive enzyme ________ begins the breakdown of proteins in the stomach. 9. Pepsin is inactivated in the duodenum. a. True b. False 10. Pancreatic __________ is responsible for the majority of fat digestion. 11. Most water and salt are absorbed in the colon. a. True b. False 12. The active transport of sodium is necessary for water absorption in the small ­intestine. a. True b. False 13. The final digestion of carbohydrates is accomplished with ______ ______ enzymes. 14. Which of the following is not a brush border enzyme? a. amylase b. sucrase c. dextrinase d. glucoamylase 15. Place the following labels on the figure below: luminal side, facilitated diffusion transporter, basolateral side 16. List the three major pancreatic proteases. 1. _____________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 17. Only single amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine. a. True b. False 18. List the two main brush border proteases. 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 19. List the two mechanisms that help to increase the surface area of lipids for subsequent digestion with pancreatic lipase. 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 20. Bile salts surround monoglycerides and free fatty acids to form tiny droplets called ________. 21. Triglycerides combine with lipoproteins inside the intestinal epithelial cells to form __________. 22. Chylomicrons exit the intestinal epithelial cells and then enter the ________ lymphatic capillaries.
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Digestive System: Digestive System Secretion 1. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS stimulate the salivary glands. a. True b. False 2. Parasympathetic innervation to the salivary glands is transmitted by cranial nerves number _______ and _______. 3. ________ division innervation stimulates watery, enzyme-rich saliva secretion, whereas ________ division innervation stimulates a mucus-rich, more viscous saliva secretion. 4. Label the figure below with the terms parasympathetic and sympathetic. 5. The four main components of gastric juice are: 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 4. _________________________ 6. Place the following labels on the figure below: parietal cell: HCl + IF, chief cell: pepsinogen, paracrine cell: histamine, mucus neck cells 7. Gastrin-producing G cells are found in the gastric glands located in the ________ region of the stomach. 8. Match the following pairs of terms: CCK and secretin—bicarbonate pancreatic juice and enzyme-rich pancreatic juice 9. Pancreatic __________ is responsible for the majority of fat digestion. 10. List the three major proteases (inactive forms) secreted by the exocrine pancreas: 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 11. Intestinal ________ converts (activates) trypsinogen into trypsin. 12. The pancreatic hormone _______ regulates the absorptive state, while ______ regulates the postabsorptive state. 13. The single digestive function of the liver is to produce _____. 14. List the four organic components of bile. 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 4. _________________________ 15. Intestinal digestive enzymes that are embedded in the epithelial microvilli membranes are called ________ ________ enzymes. 16. Acid in the intestine causes the release of ______. 17. The intestinal hormone _____ causes contraction of the gallbladder and release of bile into the duodenum. 18. _______ _______ protects the wall of the large intestine from mechanical damage and from damage by bacterial acid.
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Digestive System: Control of the Digestive System 1. List the three phases of digestive system processes: 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 2. The ___________ nerve triggers the responses during the cephalic phase of digestion. 3. List the four main responses during the intestinal phase of digestion: 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 4. The small intestine typically________. a. slows gastric emptying b. accelerates gastric emptying c. has no effect on gastric emptying 5. The ____________ and _________ ____________ nerves carry parasympathetic impulses to the enteric nervous system. 6. Sympathetic NS innervation of the digestive tract is via ____________ fibers. a. preganglionic b. postganglionic 7. All preganglionic ANS fibers release _______, while only postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division release _________. 8. Which of the following neurotransmitters stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the digestive tract? a. VIP b. norepinephrine c. NO d. ACh 9. ______ slow intestinal motility and cause the pyloric sphincter to contract. 10. List five peptide hormones of the GI tract: 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 5. _____________________ 11. List four functions of duodenal CCK. 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 12. Secretin stimulates gastric HCl secretion. a. True b. False 13. GIP stimulates the pancreas to secrete_________. 14. ______ stimulates motility of the intestine, thereby moving its contents toward the terminal ileum. 15. _______ occurs when the combined action of two hormones is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
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Interactive Physiology Worksheet: Digestive System: Anatomy Review 1. List two main divisions of the digestive system. 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 2. The four main layers of the digestive tract wall are: 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 3. Label the diagram below with the four main layers you listed in question 2. 4. The mucosa includes a type of columnar ____________________that forms the inner lining of the lumen. 5. Blood and lymph vessels of the mucosa are found in its __________________ _______________ connective tissue layer. 6. The smooth muscle layer of the mucosa is called the __________________ _________________. Page 1 of 5 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 251 2013 South University 7. The function of epithelial goblet cells is to secrete _______________________________. 8. _________________________ cells of the mucosa secrete hormones into the blood. 9. Absorption of nutrients occurs through the mucosal epithelium and into either _____________ or ________________________ vessels. 10. Label the vessels you listed in question nine in the diagram below. 11. The muscularis mucosa has both ______________________ and _______________________ fibers that function in moving the villi to aid in digestion and absorption. 12. The built-in (intrinsic) network of nerve cells in the submucosa is the ________________ ______________. 13. The two types of movements produced by contractions of the muscularis externa are ___________________________ and _____________________________. Page 2 of 5 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 251 2013 South University 14. The network of neurons in between the two muscle layers of the muscularis externa is the __________________________ ____________________________. 15. The mouth, with its ________________ ______________ epithelium, is involved in both chemical and _____________________ digestion. 16. List the four regions of the stomach: 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ 17. List the three sheets of muscle in the stomach’s muscularis externa: 1. ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________ 18. Label the three sheets of muscle in the stomach’s muscularis externa in the diagram below. Page 3 of 5 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 251 2013 South University 19. List, in order from the pylorus to the colon , the three regions of the small intestine: 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________ 20. From largest to smallest , list the three modifications of the small intestine’s inner wall that function to increase surface area: 1. ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________ 21. Label two of the modifications of the intestine to increase surface area in the following diagram. 22. The microvilli of the small intestine’s epithelial cells form the ______ ___________ border. 23. The large intestine absorbs __________________, __________________, and ___________ ___. 24. Starting from the ileocecal valve , trace the path of undigested material through the large intestine (on the diagram below). Page 4 of 5 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 251 2013 South University 25. The anus is lined with ______________________ ___________________________ epithelium. 26. List the six sphincters of the digestive tract: 1. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________ 27. The single digestive function of the liver is to produce ____________________________. 28. The main digestive enzyme –producing organ in the body is the _______________________. 29. Three pairs of __________________ ________________ function to moisten food in the mouth. Page 5 of 5 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab 251 2013 South University

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