Unit VI Assignment Weight: 13% of course gradeDue: Tuesday, 04/04/2023 11:59 PM (CST)Instructions Body of Research Paper Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft ass

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Unit VI Assignment

  • Weight: 13% of course grade
  • Due: Tuesday, 04/04/2023 11:59 PM (CST)


Body of Research Paper

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Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft assignment for Unit VI. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to continue drafting your academic argumentative research paper.Description: In this assignment, you will write three to four body paragraphs according to the form that is explained in “Lesson 3: The Body Paragraphs.” The following requirements must be included in the assignment:

  • Body Paragraphs: You will construct three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be around 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).

    • Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.
    • Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.
    • Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.
    • Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.
  • Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.
  • Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.

Example paper with body paragraphs

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Unit VI Assignment Weight: 13% of course gradeDue: Tuesday, 04/04/2023 11:59 PM (CST)Instructions Body of Research Paper Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft ass
7 The Importance of Sports and Music in College The Importance of Sports and Music in College Introduction It is often contested whether or not music and athletics are important in college. On the one hand, others contend that college is the ideal time to discover and cultivate interests in music and sports. On the other side, some individuals feel that the academic component of education should take precedence over anything else. There is no one correct solution to this argument, but it is obvious that music and sports may be significant parts of college life. Sports and music can, at their most basic level, give pupils a way to unwind from their studies (Williamon & Antonini, 2020). Stress reduction and a sense of belonging can be achieved through participation in music or sports. Participating in music and sports can aid pupils in gaining social and leadership skills, as well as a sense of teamwork. Students can learn leadership skills through sports. Making decisions, inspiring their teammates, and resolving disagreements, for instance, may fall under the purview of coaches or team captains. These abilities can be useful in a variety of settings, including the workplace and community organizations. The significance of extracurricular activities in the college admissions process is a topic of discussion as well, though. While some think extracurricular activities might give a student an advantage during the admissions process, others disagree and think academic achievement should be the main consideration in admissions decisions (McCluskey, 2020). In the end, the value of both athletics and music in college is a complicated matter that needs to be carefully considered. Sports and music participation have benefits and drawbacks, but there is no denying that college students may learn a lot from these experiences. So, it is crucial for students to think about how sports and music fit into college life and to make their own decisions about how to balance their academic work with extracurricular activities. Literature Review Preface This essay’s introduction will go over the background and significance of college sports and music. It will go through how college sports and music have evolved and gained popularity over time. The prologue will also define any specific terms used in each field, like “the big game” or “a cappella.” Also, it will talk about the traditions and culture related to collegiate athletics and music, such as “school spirit.” The preamble will also discuss the reasons for and against continuing the discussion of whether college life should be more focused on music or sports. In conclusion, the preamble will give a thorough introduction to college sports and music, covering their significance in college life as well as their history, lingo, and culture. College experiences have included music and sports for ages. Even if athletics and music have changed over the years, college life still places a high value on them. College athletics started to become more prominent in the late 19th century. Universities started creating their own sporting associations, football teams, and basketball teams (Stempel, 2020). This made it possible for rivalries to develop and raise the level of rivalry among schools. The popularity of college athletics expanded further with the emergence of professional sports leagues in the early 20th century. Music was frequently played to accompany sporting events in the early years of collegiate athletics. Fans would sing along to popular songs or school anthems led by marching bands. Fans would sing along while cheerleaders used songs to motivate their teams. College music started to become increasingly professional in the 1950s and 1960s (Stempel, 2020). Musicians started forming their own collegiate bands and playing songs by current pop stars. College sports and music each have their own lingo. For instance, terms like “the big game” or “the final four” may be used when talking about sports, whereas “a cappella” or “marching band” may be used when talking about music. A few additional forms of specialized terminology are used in the area of college music (Stempel, 2020). For instance, the term “a cappella” describes a style of singing in which only the vocals are used and no instruments are used. A sort of performance known as a “marching band” entails both marching and playing an instrument. It typically takes place at sporting events and involves a sizable crowd. The words “choir” and “orchestra,” which both refer to ensembles of musicians, are additional. For a long time, the issue of college sports and music has generated considerable discussion. On the one hand, some people think that college life should place greater emphasis on sports than it does on music (Stempel, 2020). Some contend that music should be equally significant in college as sports since it gives students a creative outlet and a means of expressing their emotions (McCluskey, 2020). The benefits of athletics both physical and psychological are said to be crucial for a successful college experience, according to those who think that sports should be the main focus of campus life. Sports provide an outlet for physical exercise and a means of maintaining one’s health, they say, as well as aiding in the development of collaboration and togetherness. Music has many advantages; therefore, according to its proponents, it shouldn’t be eclipsed by sports in terms of importance in college. They draw attention to the fact that music may give kids a strong and imaginative outlet, allowing them to express themselves and explore their emotions (McCluskey, 2020). Along with giving kids the chance to study and develop, music may also promote a sense of community and belonging. In addition to promoting a sense of pride and community, sports can have positive effects on the body and mind. At the same time, music may offer a platform for artistic expression, a feeling of community, and a chance to grow and learn (Williamon & Antonini, 2020). Both of these activities may give students a well-rounded college experience, so they should be promoted and supported in college. Conclusion Both college sports and music allow individuals to express themselves and pursue their passions. They both give students the chance to come together and share their passion for sports and music. But the question of which activity should receive greater attention in college has been up for discussion for a while. In the end, it should be emphasized that both music and athletics have many advantages. In addition to promoting a sense of pride and community, sports can have positive effects on the body and mind (Stempel, 2020). At the same time, music may offer a platform for artistic expression, a feeling of community, and a chance to grow and learn. Both of these activities may give students a well-rounded college experience, so they should be promoted and supported in college. References McCluskey, J. M. (2020). “This Is Ghetto Row”: Musical Segregation in American College Football. Journal of the Society for American Music, 14(3), 337-363. Stempel, C. (2020). Sport as high culture in the USA. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 55(8), 1167-1191. Williamon, A., & Antonini Philippe, R. (2020). Wellbeing in and through performance: perspectives from sports and music. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 399.
Unit VI Assignment Weight: 13% of course gradeDue: Tuesday, 04/04/2023 11:59 PM (CST)Instructions Body of Research Paper Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft ass
12 [Unit VI and VII, Body Section: You will find the body paragraphs on pp. 7–9, located in the blue outlined section. The body section should be placed in the paper after the Introduction and Literature Review.] Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Neonicotinoids on Bee Populations Tamika Diggs Columbia Southern University EH 1020 English Composition II Dr. Renee Reynolds January 5, 2021 Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Pesticides on Bee Populations The argument concerning whether a ban should be placed on pesticides has been a source of contention since the publishing of Rachel Carson’s groundbreaking book Silent Spring in 1962. In her book, Carson (1962) highlights the dangers of pesticide use by describing the effects of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on birds of prey including peregrine falcons, osprey, and bald eagles. DDT has since been banned, but many pesticides are still being used today. Proponents for banning pesticides acknowledge that while they may present a short-term solution to issues such as insect infestations, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure cannot be ignored. On the other hand, those in favor of pesticide use argue that the benefits often outweigh the risks, as pesticides are responsible for maximizing crop yields while also reducing the risk of disease in humans and livestock. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers have begun to witness record losses in their bee populations. The phenomenon is known as colony collapse disorder (CCD), and beekeepers affected by CCD have reported losses as high as 50–90%, sometimes within a matter of weeks (Kluser et al., 2010). Research has pointed to pesticide usage, specifically neonicotinoids (neonics), as a potential cause of CCD. According to research, neonicotinoids are used in agriculture to kill pests such as aphids and grubs but are indirectly impacting bees (Pesticide Action Network, 2017). Bees are responsible for pollinating most of the world’s crops, therefore many are advocating for the ban of neonics. However, the opposing side argues that the research naming neonics as the culprit of sudden bee deaths is weak, and that neonics are safe for use. Also, government entities like the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are concerned about the negative impact a pesticide ban would have on disease control. In addition, the economic impact on farmers due to a loss in crop yields resulting from a pesticide ban would be costly. While there would be an initial cost to explore alternative methods, continuing to expose key pollinators to harmful pesticides should not continue. Therefore, neonicotinoids should not be used due to their harmful effects on bees. Instead, alternatives such as integrated pest management (IPM), should be utilized. Review of Literature In order to better understand the controversy concerning neonicotinoid use and its effects on bee populations, it is necessary to review the origins of pesticide usage. In addition, this review will closely examine pollination and the role of the bee in that process. The review will continue by more closely examining the phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder (CDD) and its potential impact on the environment. Finally, the literature review will explore the opposing sides of the controversy surrounding neonicotinoid use, beginning with arguments in favor of banning its use and favoring alternative methods such as integrated pest management (IPM). Then, the position of those against the banning of neonicotinoids, or the con side. The Origins of Pesticides The concerns surrounding chemical pesticide use have been discussed for several decades. According to the article “Pesticides” (2007), it was the discovery of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in the 1930s that allowed modern agriculture to grow into what it is today. At that time, DDT was cheap to manufacture and known only to be toxic to insects. Therefore, DDT was used to eliminate insects from crops, to delouse prisoners and military personnel, and to control mosquitos (Zoltan, 2011). Within a few decades, scientists began to observe a decline in many species of carnivorous birds. Research lead them to the presence of concentrated DDT in the food chain, which indirectly impacted the reproductive cycles of birds of prey (McGrath, 1999). Due to this discovery, various government entities have stepped in and imposed regulations to either ban them, in the case of DDT, or control their usage (“Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides,” 2013). In spite of the recognized hazardous effects of these chemicals, many pesticides are still being used today. Pollination and Colony Collapse Disorder Pollination is the process of sexual reproduction for all higher plant forms including flowers, herbs, bushes, grass, and most trees (Blanchfield, 2011). Specifically, pollination is the process of moving pollen (male sex cells) to the pistil (female reproductive organ) of a plant of the same species to form a seed in which a new plant will grow. Pollination occurs by either abiotic means, such as by air or water, or through biotic means by being transferred with the assistance of another organism. Bees are considered to be the most effective biotic pollinator and, therefore, are critical to the process of pollination. This is due to the species social nature, large demand for food, and its ability to remember specific plants (Blanchfield, 2011). It has been estimated that of the 100 crops responsible for producing the majority of the earth’s food, 71 of them are pollinated by bees (Kluser et al., 2010). Therefore, the bee is considered a key pollinator and is integral to the process of pollination. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers have noticed a dramatic reduction in the population of bees in their hives. Scientists have named this phenomenon colony collapse disorder, also known as CCD. Colony collapse disorder is when a colony of bees abandons their hive while leaving their brood, or larvae, behind (Watanabe, 2009). The rapid decline of bee populations due to CCD places a threat on the process of pollination and the success of many of the world’s crops. The Argument in Favor of Pesticide Use Those against the banning of pesticides base their reasoning on economics and public health concerns. According to the EPA (n.d.-a), there are too many significant health problems that are caused by pests to completely discontinue use of pesticides. Some examples of these public health concerns include asthma and allergies, Avian flu, and vector-borne illnesses such as West Nile Virus (EPA, n.d.-a). A paper published by Whitford et al. (2006) from Purdue also presents strong examples that support the argument for pesticide usage. Pesticides are utilized in many advantageous ways that often go unnoticed by the public. For example, pesticides are used to control vegetation along highways to allow for visibility and safe passage and are also incorporated into many household products such as paints and caulks to prevent the growth of mold in our homes (Whitford et al., 2006). Concerning CCD, proponents of pesticide use say that there is not enough research currently available to determine that pesticides are the sole cause of CCD. Research concerning the sudden decline in bee populations have pointed at a combination of factors that result in CCD, including habitat loss, global warming, and parasites such as the varroa mite (Kaplan, 2012). Ultimately, those who support the use of pesticides argue that the benefits outweigh the risks. There are concerns that a complete ban of pesticides would present a threat to public health. Without pesticides to protect our crops and livestock, there would be a reduction in crop yields which would lead to increased famine. In addition, humans would be exposed to more diseases transmitted by insects that would have otherwise been eradicated through the use of pesticides. The Case Against Pesticides When pesticides are used, many species that may not be the intended target are often affected (National Research Council, 2013). This was the case with DDT and birds of prey, and is also the case with neonicotinoids (neonics) and honeybees. Contrary to the studies backed by pesticide supporters, opposing research has linked the cause of CCD to the use of neonics. Neonics are toxic to bees and have the ability to alter their behavior, ultimately making it difficult for them to find food (Hopwood et al., 2016). In place of pesticides, parties including beekeepers and environmentalists are asking that alternative pest management systems be utilized. Integrated pest management or IPM is the idea of providing the best level of pest management without negatively impacting human health or the environment (Blanchfield, 2011). It is believed that using environmentally friendly alternatives to pesticides such as IPM will protect keystone species and pose less harm to the ecosystem. While the debate on the use of pesticides is ongoing, it is clear that both sides have concerns surrounding public health. Those for the continued use of neonicotinoids believe (a) that they are the most effective way to kill pests that damage crops and cause disease, and (b) are monetarily invested in the increased crop production afforded through their continued usage. For those calling for a ban on neonics, the projected outcome of the extinction of beneficial species such as the honeybee is of higher concern. In an effort to reach a middle ground, they propose that alternative pest management systems be utilized. By using alternatives methods such as IPM in place of neonicotinoids, the risks of indirectly harming beneficial species and the ecosystem dramatically decreases. Therefore, the use of neonics should be banned and alternative pest management systems should be implemented. Save the Bees: My Argument against the Use of Neonicotinoids Continuing to allow the use of neonicotinoids will have sublethal effects on non-target species. While some pesticides are applied to the surface of a plant, neonics work systemically by effecting all parts of the plant, including the pollen and nectar, with most seeds treated with the pesticide prior to planting (Goulson, 2013). With neonicotinoids being present in the pollen and nectar of treated plants, bees and other pollinators such as moths and butterflies are continuously exposed to the toxin each time they feed (Bonmatin et al., 2014). While an initial exposure may not be directly threatening, small doses over an entire lifespan compounds the dangers to any given species. According to research by Hopwood et al. (2016), when bees are exposed to neonicotinoids it can affect their ability to forage and return home to their hives. When a bee cannot return home, it cannot bring food back to the colony, resulting in a colony collapse, or CCD. As a key pollinator responsible for pollinating the majority of the world’s crops, the implications of a mass die-off of bees would have a drastic effect on the food chain (Kluser et al., 2010). While neonics often impact unintended species, they also have equally negative effects on the ecosystem. Not only are neonics detrimental to beneficial species such as the bee, but they also have negative effects on the entire ecosystem due to their tendency to accumulate in soils and contaminate water sources. Neonicotinoid use by seed treatment first became popular because it was thought that it would have less of an environmental impact than use by spray contact (Hopwood et al., 2016). However, research by Dave Goulson (2013) has shown that the majority of the active ingredient in neonics persists in the soil, with the half-life lasting for as long as 1,000 days and can even accumulate if used repeatedly. This persistence in the soil concentrates the amount of toxin, making it more harmful to the environment. Neonicotinoids are also water soluble, having the ability to move freely through the soil into surface water and, in some cases, groundwater (Goulson, 2013). This water solubility and soil persistence exposes multiple organisms to the toxin, and even allows for the uptake of the pesticide in unintended plants. Rather than continue to expose non-target species and the environment to toxic neonics, it would be more beneficial to utilize alternative pest management systems. Alternative methods to pesticide use, such as integrated pest management (IPM), provide a safer, more environmentally friendly approach to pest management. The main principle of IPM is to provide the best possible pest control without causing damage to human health and the environment (Blanchfield, 2011). An issue with neonicotinoids is that the seeds are often dressed with the pesticide as a prophylactic when the targeted pest may not be present in the area where the seed is being planted (Hopwood et al., 2016). This type of preventative usage causes needless exposure of non-target plants and animals to the pesticide. IPM incorporates several methods in an effort to reduce pests, starting with identifying the specific pest that is causing damage rather than chemically treating for the incorrect pest, or a pest that may not be present. Another strategy of IPM is prevention by eliminating the habitat, food sources, and shelter that attract the pest (EPA, n.d.-b). Managing pests by accurate identification and prevention methods negate the need for chemicals which reduces the exposure to the environment. References Blanchfield, D. S. (Ed.) (2011). Environmental encyclopedia. Gale. Bonmatin, J. M., Giorio, C., Girolami, V., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D. P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., Long, E., Marzaro, M., Mitchell, E. A. D., Noome, D. A., Simon-Delso, N., & Tapparo, A. (2015). Environmental fate and exposure: Neonicotinoids and fipronil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22(1), 35–67. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3332-7 Goulson, D. (2013). Review: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(4), 977–987. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12111/full Hopwood, J., Code, A., Vaughn, M., Biddinger, D., Shepherd, M., Black, S. H., Lee-Mader, E., & Mazzacano, C. (2016). How neonicotinoids can kill bees: The science behind the role these insecticides play in harming bees (2nd ed.). The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Kaplan, J. K. (2012, July 1). Colony collapse disorder: An incomplete puzzle. Agricultural Research, 60(6), 4. Kluser, S., Neumann, P., Chauzat, M.-P., & Pettis, J. S. (2010). UNEP emerging issues: Global honey bee colony disorders and other threats. United Nations Environment Programme. McGrath, K. A. (1999). World of biology. Gale Group. National Research Council. (2013). Assessing risks to endangered and threatened species from pesticides. The National Academies Press. Pesticide Action Network UK. (2017). What are neonicotinoids? http://www.pan-uk.org/about_neonicotinoids/ Sarich, C. (2013, August 15). List of foods we will lose if we don’t save the bees. Honey Love Urban Beekeepers. https://honeylove.org/list-of-food/ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-a). Introduction to integrated pest management. https://www.epa.gov/managing-pests-schools/introduction-integrated-pest-management U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-b). Why we use pesticides. https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/why-we-use-pesticides Watanabe, M. E. (2009, December). What’s new with honeybees? BioScience, 59(11), 1010. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.19 Whitford, F., Pike, D., Hanger, G., Burroughs, F., Johnson, B., & Blessing, A. (2006). The benefits of pesticides: A story worth telling. Purdue Extension, 70. Zoltan, M. B. (2011). Pesticides and pesticide residue. In B. W. Lerner & K. L. Lerner (Eds.), In context series. Food: In context (Vol. 2, pp. 630–633). Gale.


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